In out last article we wrote about childhood of prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him. This article serves to shed light on youth on Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him. Our prophet peace and blessing be upon him was a very hard working young man. Beloved Prophet Peace be upon him, began to earn a living as a businessman and a trader. He took great interest in trade at a very early age and he was trained and encouraged by Abu Talib who took him along on trading missions to the neighboring countries. He learnt trading from his uncle Abu Talib by accompanying in business trips. He went to his first business trip at age of twelve and later he started to trade by his own.
He gained respect in Makkah by his high moral and ethical traits. He was monotheist and believed in one Allah. He was famous for his kindness, and keeping promises. He hated pride and lived a simple life. Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) helped to re-start the work of an institution names as Half-ul -Fudul (Pledge of Virtues), which took an active part in bringing about peace and unity among the tribe of Makkah. All members of Half-ul-fudul pledged to keep peace among various tribes, safety of travelers from robbers, helping the poor and needy people of society and protecting the weak from oppressors.
He was respected for his noble character in all Makkah. Due to his personal traits Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) was also given the title of As-Saadiq (The Truthful) and Al-Ameen (The Trustworthy).The greatness of his character had no equal in Makkah. As a youth, Prophet Mohammed peace be upon him kept himself away from all sins and bad habits which the youth of his age would enjoy.
Once, , Abdul-ibn-Abi-Al Hamsar met the holy prophet Mohammed peace be upon and they met in the street for a business transaction. He had to go somewhere in hurry so he asked Beloved Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) to stay and wait there for him and he would return shortly . Rasulullah. The trader forget and didn’t came back but the prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) waited there for three days for him to return. When he returned he realized that Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) waited for him patiently to keep his promise.
A noble lady of Quresh tribe “Hazrat Khadija bin Khuwaylid” (R.A) possessed the highest degree of nobility, wealth, and repute gave beloved Prophet (SAWW) goods for trade which He took to other cities and honestly gave her profits. She was impressed by his honesty and trustworthiness so she sent him a marriage proposal through her best friend Nafisa, which was accepted after by prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him after confirmation from his uncle Abu Talib. She had proposals from many notable persons of Mekkah but she refused them all. She preferred Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him over other notable people of Makkah because of his His piety, good manners, honesty and trustworthiness. Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon was 25 year old when he married to Hazrat Khadija R.A who was 40 years old.
Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him was born to Aamina (Daughter of Wahab) and Abdullah (Son of Abdul Muttalib). He belong to a noble family of Bani Hashim from Quresh tribe. His father died two months before He was born orphan but his Grandfather Abdul Muttalib took custody of him and raised Him up under his own care. His mother Aamina gave him name “Ahmed” and his grandfather named Him “Mohammed” (Peace be upon him).
According to customs of Arabs he was sent to live in a village with a noble foster-mother Halima Saadia of Saa’d bin Bakr. She looked after Him and regarded him as very special because she got many blessing of Allah SWT after he had come under her care. In healthy environment of desert village He stayed for 5 years and learnt the pure Arabic language of desert. He always regarded his foster-mother with love and great kindness. He was returned to his mother when he was 5 year old. His mother went to Medina for visiting the grave of her husband Abdullah, and on way back to Makkah she died at place called Abwa. The holy prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him was now orphan and his Grandfather took Him under custody. His grandfather loved him very much because he reminded him of his son Abdullah and never left prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him feel unwanted. Abdul Muttalib also died when Prophet Mohammed peace be upon him was just 8 years old. He was deeply grieved upon his demise and he kept weeping upto the edge of his grave. Abdul Muttalib made his son Abu Talib (Uncle of Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon Him), responsible for taking care of young child. Abu Talib fulfilled his duty very well for rest of his life.
Abu Talib treated him very special and Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him never felt lonely with him. . His wife, Fatima bint-e-Asad, also loved the Holy Prophet Mohammed peace be upon dearly and he regarded her as his mother. When Prophet Mohammed peace be Upon was 12, he travelled to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib for trade purpose. On way to Syria the caravan stopped at Busra al-Sham, an old Christian Monk Bahira observed the little boy (Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him) and tested him by few Questions. He recognized him as Last Prophet who was mentioned in unaltered Gospels. He said to Abu Talib:
“This child is destined for greatness,” he said. “Take himback to your country and look after him well.”
So, as soon as he had finished trading He his nephew back to Makkah, He didn’t told anyone about this event but he kept an extra watch on Him looked after the Prophet until he grew up Thus, the Holy Prophet peace be upon him grew up in the household of Abu Talib, He was loved and cherished by all. Abu Talib and Fatima Bint-e-Asad treated him like their own son. As the Holy Prophet Peace be upon him grew up, he was stayed under the protection of his loving uncle Abu Talib. Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him stayed away from idolate ritual of Makkah and He was known for his strong moral character.
Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and he has great contributions in field of physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural sciences, history, chronology and linguistics. His full name was Abu al Rehan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al- Biruni and he was born in Khwarezm (present day Uzbekistan). He spent his first 25 years of life in his home down mastering Islamic jurisprudence and theology, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, medics and other sciences. He left his city for getting more knowledge and travelled to many cities of region.
He is one of those great scientist mastered more than just few field of studies. He wrote 146 books and 95 books were about astronomy which shows his significant contribution in astronomy. Al-Biruni also criticized certain astrological techniques of that time and he was skeptical astrologer of the Hashwiyite school, But in his Book of Instructions does not include any skepticism regarding astrology in general instead, he presented astrology in context of the science of astral influences. In field of physics he introduced experimental scientific method to mechanics, unified statics and dynamics into the science of mechanics, and created hydrodynamics by merging hydrostatics and dynamics. He also determined the radius of earth accurately in his observatory on a mountain in Pind Dadan Khan (Salt Range of Pakistan). He also discovered the specific gravity on many minerals and metals with is self made apparatus. His has done significant work in many other fields and he also translated many previous science book to Arabic which were sought by Europe in 12th and 13th century. He travelled to many places and observed different cultures by learning their languages. He made in-depth study of India’s culture, religions and philosophy by discussions and reading books available. He wrote a comprehensive book on India’s religion and philosophy which gives a graphic account of the historical and social conditions of the sub-continent After learning Sanskrit language he translated many of Indian scientific work to Arabic. He also studied history, chronology and archeology and contributed in this field.
He wrote 146 books and translated many books to Arabic and Persian language. Some of his books are mentioned below:
1. Kitab al Tafhim
2. Indica – a compendium of India’s religion and philosophy
3. The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology
4. The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries
5. The Mas’udi Canon
6. Understanding Astrology
7. Pharmacy – about drugs and medicines.
10. A historical summary book.
11. History of Khawarezm
12. Materia Medica
He has been considered as one of the very greatest Muslim scientists and also one of the greatest of all times. His critical spirit, love of truth, and scientific approach were combined with a sense of toleration. As a Muslim we can learn a lot from his life and contribute in the betterment of human race by engaging our selves in scientific research and studies.